Iberia hosts a rich rural heritage in a country with over-exploited cities. In last decades many areas classified as marginal for the European Community are experiencing demographic changes, this can be explained by the arrival of population from urban centers, in many cases foreigners, following alternative lifestyles in the countryside; so-called «neo-rurals» .

The Peninsula hosts the area hardest hit by depopulation in EU but there are diferent initiatives to recover the towns, reviving customs and bringing new ideas and projects for the development of the habitat. The relationship with the medium and small human communities are common denominators among the «newcomers», aspects as recycling or sustainability are vital, restoring the link with nature and animals.

Iberian peoples has a strong rural linkage in the richest natural diversity throughout Western Europe; 1,500 endemic species and more than half of the animal species existing in the EU. In the Middle Miocene, with Africa united by land, here cames pangolins, rhinoceroses, horses, elephants, lions ... developing a rich biological variety, but since historical times several animal species has become extinct under human action; Iberian examples such as the -uro- at ancient times, the -zebro- at late Middle Age and two subspecies of Iberian ibex, currently.

Forests has played a prominent role in the history of mankind: Climate, culture, technology and trade has a great influence on the deforestation rythm. Over time, the interaction between humans and forests has varied according to socioeconomic changes. 

The migration phenomenon defined as «neo-ruralism» dates back to the birth of the Industrial Revolution, although it has evolved over time: At first, is associated with the utopia of a return to villages and community life, another second phase is marked by the flowering of environmental awareness with new migration flows from the city to the countryside.
Living in a rural area also provides an opportunity to step up social relationships promoting exchanges with the local population. The «neo-rural» people needs to find activities to satisfy their creativity and feel useful. The level of integration is strongly related to the level of satisfaction with the environment and lifestyle.
During the settlement period the «neo-rurals»  lives different stages in which manage to increase their welfare is the key to permanence. This implies a symbiosis with the environment entails enjoy the medium and achieve satisfaction in the activities performed, as well as in social relations.
Iberian customs are strongly rooted with the wild and animals, the oldest ones find its origin in pre-Romanesque and Celtic tribes, where the collective idiosyncrasy was closely linked to the natural conditions of the environment, the animals and the plants. There is not too much documented evidence about the origin of these ancient rituals and traditions; possibly because they were linked to peasant communities, which did not leave a written record of their experiences, but were transmitted from parents to children along generations.
Throughout the Middle Ages there was a process of reconversion of Europe with the intention of substituting pagan rites for new Christian practices. So, the new rituals maintain previous symbols that have gradually changed their meaning, these are the evolution of ancestral rites contextualized by successive communities under the process of Christianization and social policies.

The origin of the Iberian peoples is not knowing in depth; although classical sources do not always agree on the precise geographical boundaries or enumeration of specific peoples, it seems that language is the fundamental criterion that identifies the Iberian.

By a contemporary archaeological view, the concept of Iberian culture is not a repeating on each people's uniform patterns, these folks has shared certain common characteristics but they were not an homogeneous ethnic group: The Iberian were evolved different peoples by different cultures prior to proto-state structures, influenced in their development by Phoenician, Greeks and Carthaginians.

«Rurban Action» (partnership for sustainable urban-rural development), aimed to bridge across regional and rural policies, it was agreed by the European Parliament and managed by the European Commission. The EU is working together with countries, regions and other partners to promote urban-rural linkages. The benefits of stronger urban-rural cooperation include more efficient land use and planning, better provision of services and better management of natural resources.